Date of glass, the glass structure, a detailed source on
HISTORY OF GLASS
BC by the Egyptians and the glass Finikeli’ler Rivayetinin produced for the first time as well as during the 2nd century BC 3. The first glass samples were believed to have been made century in Mesopotamia. Although there is no evidence as to how the first glass is produced, a Roman historian, Pliny the Elder, Finike’li sailors had found the first refers to the glass.
According to the story, sailors, Syria, established a camp on the beach and the fire burning in Prolemais containers, but also with loads of soda, put on blocks. The next day, wake up in the heat of the fire because they saw the sand and soda glass is formed. Pliny the anecdote may be uncertain, but it is necessary for the production of glass, contains the correct formula. Sand glass manufacturing, the most important ingredient. To reduce the hardening of soda is added to the boiling point, and the third to be long-lasting as the lime is added.
The findings of the first glass in the Eastern Mediterranean, Southwestern town of Kas, Turkey, near the BC Were found in the hold of a merchant ship sunk around the year 2000. This wreck load, pouring molds made of glass, blue glass ingots were melted.
With glass objects produced in Mesopotamia, glass-making techniques spread to other parts of the Mediterranean Sea. At first, glass blocks are used and the carved figure.
7 in Alexandria, Egypt Century became the center of glass-making and glass blowing techniques found in this period. This technique was first Italian workshops, Friday, Literium and a different şekilllerle Pozzuoli and then used in Rome.
Mainly used for glass buildings in the Byzantine period, and examples from this period are today.
And Istanbul in Turkey started with Selçuklu’larla Following the discovery of the art of glass-making developed. Many glass atelier was established in and around Istanbul. 14. Barred established near the beginning of the century, those further afield Crystal Glass workshop type of glass began to be called. The first glass factory was established in 1934 in the sense that modern advances it has made in Paşabahçe renews itself continuously.
Glass, although often used in transparent or translucent, usually hard, brittle, inorganic liquid, which allows the preservation of and liquids  material. Since ancient times, both in construction, as well as ornaments of glass used. Nowadays, communication and space technology is still the most simple tools and materials are used in many common.
Glass sudden cooled alkali and alkaline earth metal oxides, other metal oxides, the dissolution of some of the main material of a fluid material (SiO2) silisyumdur. Preserving the amorphous structure of the glass solidifies. Due to rapid cooling during production rather than crystal structure consists of amorphous structure. This structure gives the ability to the glass stability and transparency.
Date of glass stretches back to antiquity. First, it is not known when the current net production of approximately 2500 BC, is the oldest glass objects belonging to ancient Egyptian beads.
In the later period, the findings of Egypt similarly colored feathers that zig-zag patterns found in glass bottles. The construction of glass mosaic in the modern sense of the Ptolemaic period, and the ancient Roman civilizations are found in Alexandria
Glass pendant ornament. Common to the island of Murano glass processing, Italy. Here, rings and other jewelry made of glass.
A glass amorphous solid. . In this state, similar to the one included in the behavior of a liquid. General properties of liquids, the viscosity, the glass is something in the. In other words, glass, fluid-flow time so long that the flow of substance but a man gözlemleyemez, survival is not enough. Therefore, we can call a liquid compound glass. Furthermore, windows, clear enough melting temperature solids, non-liquid behavior is characterized as a solid phase.
There are three groups of substances entering the name of the composition of the glass. They can be turned into glass, oxides, solvents and stabilizers are substances called. If this material is the glass composition can also be called as sand and soda-lime. Ordinary window glass, except for the composition of substances and the production gives important features are components that help provide some benefits.
Some of these substances in general network forming oxides glass transition property. Quartz sand is one of them. The most important of the network forming oxides SiO2, B2O3 and P2O5 (phosphorus), respectively.
The network forming oxides can be turned into glass and substances involved in the composition of the glass in order to facilitate meltdown is called flux. These substances reducing melting temperature camlaşıcıların makes their meltdown. 1713 ˚ C, 1550 ˚ C, in particular, the degree of melting of silicon decreases. Solvents melters to alter it by entering it into the network is also called modifiers. The most important ingredient used in the manufacture of glass melting, Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3) or the commonly used name and Soda. Soda, unit price, as used in the manufacture of glass is one of the most expensive raw materials.
Stabilizers (stabilizers) 
Stabilizers, glass, chemical resistance, refractive index, dielectric properties make an impact on. Stable feature of a glass of water in front of the stabilizer added to the formula does not. This is called water glass windows. The main substances used in stabilizators CaO, BaO, PbO, MgO and ZnO stop. CaO limestone (CaCO3), MgO in the dolomite (MgCO3) is achieved with the participation of the glass formula. Back and forth within their CO2 comes out of these two oxides by heating the substance remains. As CaCO3 = CaO + CO2.
Auxiliary Components (Secondary Components) 
These components usually do not enter the formula of ordinary glass, but have different effects in different types of glass used in order to ensure oxides. For example, the
Manganese dioxide (MnO2) can degrade the glass,
Arsenic (As2O3) gives color, purifies,
Sulfur (Na2SO4) redükleyicidir,
Potassium nitrate (KNO3) fixes the transparency of glass.
A glass tower
A glass swan
In later stages of melting of the main substances in the preparation and shaping of glass paste is aged. Glass material, eight-way formatted:
a) Blow (Blow) Method
Camcılıkta “pipe” from the so-called end of a long hollow metal rod, called a bit inflated, lots of them are tiny and cold too much influenced by the shape of a ball is cooled to crack. Then, taking into account the weight and dimensions of glass products to the end lots of them are mine again. From the mine, the mold used to mold the mold slightly inflated and inserted into a smaller size. If you continue to blow in a mold the shape of the mold the glass is obtained according to size and patterns. Do not shake the mold to be used, the extension methods such as the glass is shaped. In this case, cooled and hardened glass until the desired shapes using a variety of tools can be used.
b) Cast-Rolling Method
c) Tensile Method
d) Flotation Method
The production of a large part of everyday life, this method is used in the windows of the house. Large volumes of both flat surface Thermopanes home office for the production of float glass method, the density of the molten glass and the glass density of the heavier liquid with a lower melting point of tin is poured in a controlled manner to a method of forming yüzdürülmesiyle
e) Compression Method
Press looms manually by miners “fonga called” left in tip top shape with a long metal rod, automatic and manual presses that connects small size of the molds are released. Jammed applied pressure, cooling the glass in the inner and outer mold is obtained. the use of the method has several drawbacks in large size presses. Can be produced by the method of maximum pressure up to 2.5 kg.
f) Fiber Restoration Method
g) Foam Restoration Method
h) Centrifugal Method
In this method, given the torque of 500-900 rpm depending on the counters available in different styles released into the fluid form patterns mining, opening outward due to centrifugal force during rotation tend to. Base, some types of glass, chandeliers, fruit and varieties of this style of glass can be obtained by this method.
i) other formatting methods
Glass produced after formatting, may not have the qualifications to be used. The following methods and procedures applied to the glass area is made ready for use.
Reach the desired size, then the desired size or shape of the production glass cutting process carried out for the purpose of correction. Diamond cutting, CNC cutting, thermal cutting blowtorch some types of cutting. Blowing end portions of glasses produced by the burner because they are flat and sharp thermal cutting and the cutting tool is not being used on a flat lip shape are not parts of the circuit breaker.
Tempering process, the glass on the outer surfaces of the horizontal line voltage greater pressure, to give an indirect tensile stress in the middle of the glass, cut to size and fixed edges of the glass, the melting point (625-645 ° C) controlled heating and rapidly cooling the glass surfaces 6000 Pa pressure voltage gain stages to the front. Uygulanmmış glass tempering process, the untreated and heat resistant than ordinary lenses in approximately 4-5 times more resistant to breakage and broken because the size of the membrane is very small, less than it reduces the risk of injury due to sharp dissected safety glass features.
Sandblasting glass tempering is carried out, breakout, no further action other than painting, cutting, drilling, chamfering, edge and surface grinding operations, fires made of glass cases. For this reason, the glass tempering process will be, dimensioning, grinding, drilling, and so on. procedures will be needed before the tempering process is required.
Strong or abrasive lapping the edges of glass tempering process, the process should be applied applied to edge of the glass must be cleaned by performing countersink or burrs on the edge of the hole, or during the process of glass tempering furnace fires. The diameter of the holes in the glass tempering process to be applied must be at least equal to the thickness of glass. Is the diameter of the hole is smaller thickness of the glass during the glass tempering furnace fires. In addition, the holes in the glass close to the edge on the glass should not be concentrated in a certain region close to each other.
Tempered glass, other than normal glasses because they contain a lot more security and are more robust, especially in motor vehicles, the front windows of the buildings, the gardens were closed with glass to create a winter garden, balcony systems, workplaces glass pane, construction of stairs, elevator, windows, shower cabins, curved industrial refrigerators, some white goods, cafe, bakery, such as are used for the needs of enterprises and balcony glazing.
Diamond stone with sharp ends of the glass is making profile.
But also the fact that they do not dissolve is known as unbreakable glass broken glass. Both sides of the glass plate with an adhesive plate turned into a two-foil (PVB) is formed by combining it with. Thus, even if the glass breaks, such as increased strength to remain together dağılmayıp situations such as theft, etc. is used as security against the glass is preferred. Cars in case of an accident and possible injury to prevent the dispersion of the glass and laminated glass is preferred. Unlikely event of an accident to the front glass lamination of stroke less stiffness. In addition, this tempers the normal curved glass lenses, distorted state of opinion in the event of cracking and provides breaking. All kinds of flat and curved glass with a project and the desired thickness of the multilayer laminating and vacuum autoclave process can be achieved with the acquisition.
Transparent glass windows by application area by area of use in order to constitute a colored with a decorative appearance. Print and spray painted the windows, if necessary, by applying heat treatment temper paint or tansiyonsal provides a strong bond with the glass thoroughly. Tansiyonsal thermal process, the inlet temperature of 550 ° C oven for 1.5 hours-reel tape system sent, and on the other hand comes out at 55 ° C.
Acid and blasting
Acid, and the sand blasting process, bringing in etching the glass surface making decorative image thereon. This outlook for the formation of the glass surface is covered with paper or PVC foil. This foil cutting machines, hand-made or custom cut and pasted. This pattern on the foil to expose the sanding bölgedekilerin glass surface to be made and then the removal of pressure spray guns by spraying with compressed air nozzles by changing the glass surface is called the blast processing.
Acid operation, the cam acting on a single acid, HF (hydrofluoric acid) is used. In this, as described above, the exposed region acid react with the glass surface by pouring, and a method of creating wear in that area. Another method is the acid process called breakout. In this process, first the entire surface of blasting aşındırılan glass made by boiling a small amount of glue and in the meantime been brought into a HF (hydrofluoric acid) was added in a thin layer of glue beads made with plaster and left to dry. Due to surface tension, such as glass and stand on the membrane dries and begins a process called breakout is formed.
In this process, the glass is cooled tempering thermal shock at the time, certain redius (radius) ratio is twisted. Temper immediately bending machine cooling is applied. 230mm’den edge of a small glass cylinders for tutunamayacağından be strengthened and bent.